In addition, several public office holders have ministerial rank: unlike the President and Vice-Presidents, Cabinet members are not elected; they are appointed on the proposal of the President and subsequent confirmation by the Senate. The rest of the executive branch consists of the various independent federal departments and agencies that assist the president in fulfilling the functions of the executive branch. The qualified majority requirement does not apply to two other types of international agreements – agreements with the single executive and agreements between congresses and executive bodies. Although these agreements are considered “treaties” internationally, they do not receive the same status as “treaties” in the United States because they were not entered into “with the advice and consent of the Senate.” Single executive agreements are international agreements entered into by the president alone, while congressional executive agreements are international executive agreements supported by laws passed by Congress that require only a simple majority of both houses, not a supermajority of the Senate. The legal aid service is not authorized to provide legal advice to individuals. The governor`s term is four years in each state, commonwealth and territory, with the exception of New Hampshire and Vermont, which lasts two years. All governors except Virginia may succeed each other, although they may be limited to a certain number of consecutive or total terms. Governors prepare and submit annual or biennial budgets for review and approval by the legislature. In a number of states, Commonwealth and territories, governors also have a “reductive” veto – usually referred to as “budget items” – which can be used to reduce funds they oppose. These instruments enable governors and their budget staff to play an important role in setting priorities for the use of government resources.
For more information on each state on the preparation of the governor`s budget and the veto power over positions, see “Governors: Powers” (Table 4.4, 2019 State Book, Source: Council of State Governments). States, Commonwealth, and territories differ in terms of minimum age, U.S. citizenship, and state residency requirements for gubernatorial candidates and incumbents. The minimum age for governors varies from no formal requirement to 35. The U.S. citizenship requirement for gubernatorial candidates ranges from no formal requirement to 20 years. State residency requirements range from no formal disposition to 7 years. The Attorney-General defends the constitutionality of laws duly promulgated by the legislature and is empowered to issue formal legal opinions on matters of application of State law at the request of various officials. The Attorney General`s Office houses the Florida Commission on the Status of Women and the Council on the Social Status of Black Men and Boys.
The Civil Rights Office is also home to the Civil Rights Bureau, which investigates and prosecutes violations of the civil rights of Floridians. As with governors, other nationally elected positions may be subject to age, citizenship and residency requirements, as well as term limits. The roles played by bodies and commissions vary considerably depending on the State and the programme. In some States, appointed bodies have primary responsibility for individual programmes and agencies and are responsible for the selection of heads of departments and agencies. This is particularly true in the education sector, but agencies retain responsibility for a wide range of other programs in areas such as labour, transportation, health and social services. The Attorney General is the nationally elected representative designated by the Florida Constitution to serve as the chief legal counsel of the State of Florida. The attorney general is responsible for protecting Florida consumers from various types of fraud and enforcing the state`s antitrust laws. In addition, the attorney general protects his constituents in Medicaid fraud cases, defends the state in civil litigation, and represents Florida residents when felons challenge their convictions in state and federal courts. The governors, all elected by the people, are the chief executive of the fifty states and five Commonwealth and territories. The office of lieutenant governor exists in the vast majority of states where the office is most often filled by national elections and jointly with the governor, although in a small number of cases the role of lieutenant governor is assigned by state law to another position in the executive or legislative branch (for example, Secretary of State or President of the Senate).
The offices of Secretary of State, Attorney General, and Treasurer are subject to national popular elections in the majority of states, and at least one of the three is elected in most of the remaining states. Although governors share many roles and responsibilities, the extent of governors` power varies from state to state in accordance with constitutions, legislation, and tradition, and governors are often ranked by political historians and other observers of state policy according to the number and scope of their powers. Ranking factors may include the following. A large number of States provide for the independent selection of certain leadership positions. The most notable of these positions are lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, and treasurer. The Department administers federal financial support for higher education, oversees educational programs and civil rights laws that promote equal opportunity in student learning opportunities, collects data and sponsors research on U.S. schools to improve the quality of education, and works to complement state and local government efforts. parents and students. In the event of a vacancy, the Lieutenant Governor is the designated officer who succeeds the Governor in 49 states and territories (in two of them – Tennessee and West Virginia – the President/President of the Senate and the Lieutenant Governor are one and the same person). In the remaining 5 states and in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, officials to succeed the governor include the Secretary of State and the President of the Senate.
“The President shall be commander-in-chief of the United States Army and Navy and of the militia of the various States when called up for effective United States service.” Article II, § 2. All implementing regulations and substantive proclamations to be issued by the President are reviewed as to form and legality by the Office of the Legal Counsel, as well as various other matters requiring the formal approval of the President. Above all, the president is always subject to the law in the exercise of these executive powers.