3NF is sufficient to design a normal relational database because a large portion of a third party`s standard forms tables remain free of delete, update, and insert anomalies. In addition, 3NF is obliged to guarantee the absence of loss and to maintain functional dependencies. Note the multiple Class# values for each Student# value in the table above. Class# does not functionally depend on Student# (primary key), so this relationship is not in a second normal form. Database normalization or database normalization (see spelling differences) is the process of structuring a relational database into a series of so-called normal forms to reduce data redundancy and improve data integrity. It was first proposed by British computer scientist Edgar F. Codd as part of his relational model. This article discusses database normalization terminology for beginners. A basic understanding of this terminology is helpful when discussing the design of a relational database.
This means that this table must also be decomposed to satisfy the fourth normal form: Codd introduced the concept of normalization in 1970 and the normal form known today as the first normal form (1NF).  Codd defined the second normal form (2NF) and the third normal form (3NF) in 1971, and Codd and Raymond F. Boyce defined the Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF) in 1974.  Exercise 1: Find the highest normal form in R (A, B, C, D, E) under the following functional dependencies. Standardization methods help us eliminate all these anomalies and, ultimately, bring a database into a very consistent and optimized state. Allow the existence of a database table with the following structure: However, it should be noted that normal forms beyond 4NF are primarily of academic interest because the problems they are supposed to solve rarely occur in practice.  Edgar F. Codd`s definition of 1NF refers to the notion of “atomicity”. Codd states that “values in domains where each relationship is defined must be atomic with respect to the DBMS.”  Codd defines an atomic value as one value that “cannot be broken down into smaller parts by the DBMS (without certain special functions)”, meaning that a column should not be divided into parts with more than one data type, so what one part means for the DBMS depends on another part of the same column.
The goal of this standardization is to increase the flexibility and independence of data and to simplify the language of data. It also opens the door to further standardization that eliminates redundancy and anomalies. A violation of any of these conditions would mean that the table is not strictly relational and therefore does not exist in the first normal form. A relation exists in the third normal form, if there is no transitive dependence on nonprime attributes, and in the second normal form. A relation is in 3NF if at least one of the following conditions is true in any nontrivial function dependency X – > Y. Normalization is the process of minimizing the redundancy of a relationship or set of relationships. Redundancy related to insert, delete, and update anomalies can result in insert, delete, and update anomalies. Thus, it helps to minimize redundancy in relationships. Normal forms are used to eliminate or reduce redundancy in database tables.
Instead of a table in non-normalized form, there are now two tables that correspond to 1NF. Normalization is a database design technique that reduces data redundancy and eliminates unwanted features such as inserting, updating, and removing anomalies. Normalization rules divide larger tables into smaller tables and join them using relationships. The purpose of normalization in SQL is to eliminate redundant (repetitive) data and ensure that the data is stored logically. A fundamental purpose of the first normal form, defined by Codd in 1970, was to enable querying and manipulation of data using a “universal data sublanguage” based on first-order logic.  An example of such a language is SQL, although it was considered seriously buggy by Codd.  Databases are often normalized by adaptive input heuristics, which can be easily achieved with a fraction of the processing mapping used by methods such as subclass interpolation.  Normalization rules are divided into the following normal forms: As a prerequisite for fitting the relational model, a table must have a primary key that uniquely identifies a row. Two books can have the same title, but an ISBN uniquely identifies a book so that it can be used as a primary key: if no DB table instance contains two or more independent, multivalued data describing the entity concerned, it is in the 4th normal form. Because this table structure consists of a composite primary key, it contains no non-key attributes and is already in BCNF (and therefore satisfies all previous normal forms).
Assuming that all available books are offered in each region, the title is not only tied to a specific location and, therefore, the table does not satisfy 4NF. Here are examples of tables (or views) that would not meet this definition of the first normal form: EXCEPTION: Adherence to the third normal form is theoretically desirable, but not always practical. If you have a Customers table and want to eliminate all possible dependencies between fields, you must create separate tables for cities, postal codes, sales reps, customer classes, and any other factors that can be duplicated in multiple records. Theoretically, standardization is worth it. However, many small tables can affect performance or exceed the capacity of open files and memory. It is clear that we do not put our simple database in the 2. Normalization, unless we partition the table above. In a hierarchical database such as IBM Information Management System, a record can contain groups of child records called repeating groups or array attributes. If such a data model is represented as relationships, a repeating group would be an attribute where the value itself is a relation. The first normal form eliminates nested relationships by transforming them into separate “higher-level” relationships that are mapped to the parent line by foreign keys rather than direct confinement. To understand what partial dependency is and how to normalize a table to the 2nd normal form, skip to the second normalform tutorial.
The inventor of the relational model, Edgar Codd, proposed the theory of data normalization with the introduction of the first normal form, and he extended the theory with the second and third normal forms. Later, with Raymond F. Boyce, he developed the theory of the Boyce-Codd normal form. Normal forms are of four main forms: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF. A large database defined as a single relationship can cause data to be duplicated. This repetition of data can lead to the following consequences: The data in the following example was intentionally designed to contradict most normal forms. In real life, it is quite possible to skip some of the normalization steps, because the table does not contain anything that contradicts the given normal form. It also often happens that repairing an injury to a normal form also corrects a violation of a higher normal form in the process. In addition, a table has been selected for normalization at each step, which means that at the end of this sampling process, there may still be tables that do not satisfy the highest normal form. Let`s take a look at the table in the previous examples book and see if it satisfies the normal form of the domain key: In our database, we have two people with the same name Robert Phil, but they live in different places. A primary value is a single-column value used to uniquely identify a database record. If a relationship contains a compound or multivalued attribute, it violates the first normal form, or a relationship has the first normal form if it does not contain a compound or multivalued attribute.